Washington, DC 20036, For more information, please visit: travel.state.gov, Note: Documents in Portable Document Format (PDF) Finally, low blood pressure and respiratory failure may occur, leading to death. You cannot rely on your senses to tell if you are being exposed to a harmful level of radioactivity. The Iranian Embassy Siege, An Unorthodox Soldier : peace and war and the Sandline affair. Formula:C9H18O6. Contact with ricin powders or products may cause redness and pain of the skin and eyes. The failure, mostly attributable to weather and technical problems, gifted Ayatollah Khomeini a significant propaganda coup. Matthews, A. The challenge of developing shared and actionable intelligence in a multi-agency setting is not unique to Northern Ireland (Aid, 2009, pp. Contracted pupils, redness of the membranes, pain in the eye, dim and/or blurred vision, sensation of pressure with heaviness, reflex nausea and vomiting. Go! The Royal Air Force provides essential defensive capabilities to UK airspace. Counter-Terrorism: Narrative Strategies exhibits a rare combination of insight, originality, and logic in arguing for the significance of narrative approaches to soft counter-terror strategies. Urban, M. (2011) Task Force Black: The explosive true story of the SAS and the secret war in Iraq. David, S. (2016) Operation Thunderbolt: Flight 139 and the Raid on Entebbe Airport, the Most Audacious Hostage Rescue Mission in History. Available at: http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/secret-40-strong-sas-immediate-8430895 (Accessed: 12 March 2017). A reluctance to deploy troops on the streets of the British mainland (MacAskill, 2015) is perhaps unsurprising, given the ramifications this would have for social norms. Engagement is essential for community-based efforts to prevent violent extremism because it allows government and communities to share information, concerns, and potential solutions. Nasaw, D. (2008) ‘US authorities say deceased scientist responsible for anthrax attacks’, The Guardian, August. Its insensitivity to shock and friction reduces the risk of accidental detonation. The strategy to prevent violent extremism in the United States outlines how the Federal Government will support and help empower American communities and their local partners in their grassroots efforts to prevent violent extremism. Drone strikes and the killing of Osama bin Laden in Pakistan or the US hostage rescue attempts in Iran in 1980 are pertinent. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/northernireland/8425593/Libyan-arms-helped-the-IRA-to-wage-war.html (Accessed: 11 November 2016). (2014) Anti-Terrorism Law and Normalising Northern Ireland (Routledge Research in Terrorism and the Law) eBook: Jessie Blackbourn: Amazon.co.uk: Kindle Store. Counter-terrorism strategies include attempts to counter financing of terrorism. Continuum. Military counter terrorism techniques and responses are diverse. As a military counter terrorism operation it was effective and successful. Protecting American communities from al-Qa‘ida’s hateful ideology is not the work of government alone. Maley, W. and Schmeidl, S. (2016) Reconstructing Afghanistan: Civil-Military Experiences in Comparative Perspective. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2346.2011.01012.x. As radioactive material spreads, it becomes less concentrated and less harmful. Because of lunar observation and differences in time zones, the observance of Islamic holidays and calendar dates may vary from region to region. Almost any type of radioactive material with military, industrial, or medical applications could be used in a dirty bomb. From Executive Outcomes (Singer, 2008, pp. Singer, P. W. (2008) Corporate Warriors: The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry. Odorless and tasteless, VX is an oily liquid that is amber in color and very slow to evaporate; about as slowly as motor oil. The fifth category examines techniques and responses used in international stabilisation efforts and the development of military counter terrorism capabilities of foreign states. The terms dirty bomb and RDD are often used interchangeably in the media. Ahmed Ressam, sentenced to 22 years in prison in 2005 for planning to bomb Los Angeles International Airport on 31 December 1999, acquired this ostensibly genuine Canadian passport by using a fraudulent baptismal certificate; the obscured name was Western-sounding in an attempt to evade scrutiny at the border. The Islamic calendar is based on the movement and observation of the moon. If you are a member of the press, media commentator or analyst and would like original quotes or material for your own pieces, please check out our Expert Source page, which gives more information about our experience helping the media, industry analysts and conference organisers. Proxy measures for community support may include tips offs, reports of suspicious devices or activities. The vast majority of these materials are not useful in an RDD. Within minutes—contracted pupils, runny nose, narrowing of the large airways, fluid accumulation in the lungs and difficulty breathing or shortness of breath. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cyber Threat Intelligence Integration Center, National Counterintelligence and Security Center, Office of Civil Liberties, Privacy, and Transparency, Removing shoes and outer clothes may get rid of up to 90% of radioactive dust, Follow FEMA instructions on what to do next—listen to the news or go online. Targeted killings, be they from air or drone strikes pose a risk to non-combatants within the strike zone. The cookie settings on this website are set to "allow cookies" to give you the best browsing experience possible. The third category explores military counter terrorism techniques used in wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. illness associated with confined geographic areas. 312-314) and Iraq feature prominently. 2. TATP is made of a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and acetone with the addition of an acid, such as sulfuric, nitric, or hydrochloric acid. The applicability of each technique (in terms of ethics, proportionality and legality), its tactical and strategic efficacy as well as the nature and danger of blowback are highly complex and contextual. Terrorists for many years have sought to acquire radioactive material for use in attacks. If you continue to use this website without changing your cookie settings or you click "Accept" below then you are consenting to this. (2009) ‘Intelligence in Northern Ireland’, in Andrew, C., Aldrich, R. J., and Wark, W. K. (eds) Secret Intelligence: A Reader. 119-122). C-4 appears as an off-white solid with a consistency similar to modeling clay. Our pre-9/11 strategy in particular failed to prevent terrorist attacks. Assessing the operational effectiveness of military counter terrorism techniques within each of the five categories leads to a central conclusion. (2015) Operation Demetrius and its aftermath : a new history of the use of internment without trial in Northern Ireland 1971-75. doi: 10.1525/sp.2007.54.1.23. The protection of the London 2012 Olympics (Bloxham, 2011), providing covert spotters around shopping centres and tourist sites (Hughes, 2016), rapid response and police training illustrate the breadth and diversity of tasks. 945–964. (2016) Armed soldiers patrol the beaches after latest terror attacks, Mail Online. The third category explores military counter-terrorism techniques used in wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. People could be externally contaminated (on their skin) or internally contaminated with radioactive materials through inhalation, ingestion, or Jérôme Doyon. Hazmat crews and many fire trucks routinely carry such equipment with them, and they would probably be the first to detect abnormal levels of radioactivity. Hughes, G. (2011) The Military’s Role in Counterterrorism: Examples and Implications for Liberal Democracies, Strategic Studies Institute. Sage. Threat—This Strategy recognizes there are numerous nations and groups that support terrorism to oppose U.S. interests, including Iran, Syria, Hezbollah and HAMAS, and we will use the full range of our foreign policy tools to protect the United States against these threats. 44–54. In the United States, report your lost or stolen passport to the Department of State’s Passport Services group; call 1-877-487-2778. Counterterrorism should use direct military action, while targeting asymmetric activities that influence and render environments inhospitable to terrorism. Those closest to the RDD would be the most likely to sustain injuries due to the explosion. Available at: http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2015/03/20/national/tokyo-marks-20th-anniversary-of-aums-deadly-sarin-attack-on-subway-system/ (Accessed: 12 March 2017). However, if you touch ricin that is on your skin and then eat food with your hands or put your hands in your mouth, you may ingest some. The fifth and last category considers the effectiveness of military counter terrorism techniques in post-conflict, state building and stabilisation initiatives. Commentary. Go! If you find someone else’s lost passport, mail it to: U.S. Department of State O’Brien. Abacus. Indeed, Muslim American communities have categorically condemned terrorism, worked with law enforcement to help prevent terrorist attacks, and forged creative programs to protect their sons and daughters from al-Qa‘ida’s murderous ideology. 135–151. The third category to consider introduces the use of military counter terrorism techniques outside of the conceptualisation of ‘terrorism as crime’ (Miller, 2009, pp. For example, 1 Muharram, the first day of Islamic year 1437 (known in the West by the Latin term Anno Hegirae, or A.H.), fell on 14 October 2015; in A.H. 1438, 1 Muharram falls on 2 October 2016. Nerve agents are the most toxic and rapidly acting of the known chemical warfare agents. The tempo of counter terrorism operations may not always facilitate upfront assessment of strategic impact. Operations by Special Forces in Northern Ireland have been controversial (Bamford, 2009, pp. The second category examines civil domestic protection in the context of military deployment in response to prolonged civil emergency. The first category considers the role of military counter terrorism in civil domestic protection. A unique threat requires unique combat measures, and that's what counter terrorism is all about: developing and applying methods of preventing and fighting terrorism. The materials that are the most deadly are also the hardest to obtain and handle. We must be vigilant in identifying, predicting, and preempting new developments. 290-313) when Palestinian terrorists were sheltered by Uganda’s Idi Amin. If you are not involved in the immediate emergency response, the best thing you can do after a bomb blast is try to leave the area quickly and calmly. It can be very unstable and sensitive to heat, shock, and friction. Global governance of the privatised military sector is important to ensure that specialist tradecraft is not transferred to unpalatable actors. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/aug/06/anthrax.usa (Accessed: 12 March 2017). Decisive action may be needed to counter a sudden threat. The UK’s complicity in torture in the global war on terrorism’, International Affairs, 87(4), pp. Any bomb can become “dirty” by simply adding radioactive material. Other signs and symptoms may incude seizures, and blood in the urine. Military primacy, within a conceptualisation of ‘terrorism as war’ (Ibid., pp. Passports with serial numbers that are watchlisted as lost or stolen, Handwritten documents that are easily forged or altered, Multiple passports used by the same person with variations in the spelling/structure of the name and of date of birth, Ambiguous or contradictory information submitted to consular or border control officials, Absence of supporting documents to corroborate passport information, Large gaps in travel history as reflected in stamps and visa. Between 1969 and 2007, the British Army was deployed in support of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) and latterly the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI). Counter-terrorism (also spelled counterterrorism) refers to the practices, tactics, techniques, and strategies that governments, military organizations, police departments, and corporations adopt in response to terrorist threats and/or acts, both real and imputed. Targeted killings, air and drone strikes, Special Forces deployments, enhanced interrogation and the ‘industrialisation’ of military counter terrorism are considered. ANFO is a secondary/tertiary explosive, and requires little specialized skills or machinery to mix. It is debatable whether public confidence was weakened or emboldened by what may have appeared to some as ‘security theatre’. Ethical and legal concerns arise, particularly with extra-judicial killings in weak and fragile states. The elimination of high profile AQI protagonists including Abu Musab al-Zarqawi are among the successes (Ibid., pp. A unique course in South East Asia! Communities—especially Muslim American communities whose children, families, and neighbors are being targeted for recruitment by al-Qa‘ida—are often best positioned to take the lead because they know their communities best. The role of the military in France and Belgium in the wake of mass casualty attacks against civilians is illustrative. 221-222), raise questions over proportionality and effect. The device kills or injures through the initial blast of the conventional explosive and by spreading radiation and contamination. The True Story. Constructing and testing well-ordered policy hypotheses would therefore seem prudent. One of the most commonly used explosives for military and industrial purposes. require Adobe Acrobat Reader 5.0 or higher to view, Privacy Policy | There is no room to derogate from the Geneva Conventions and little evidence of the efficacy of torture. While there is no universally accepted transliteration of Arabic names and terms, this edition of the Counterterrorism Calendar adheres to a transliteration system that is generally used throughout the US Government. Significant reputational damage resulted from egregious detainee mistreatment at Abu Ghraib (Ramsay, 2009, pp. This practice potentially obfuscates the impact of targeted killings, skewing (or preventing) fully objective analysis of their effect. Islamic dates and holidays are approximate, as they are determined by local lunar observation. Protecting our Nation’s communities from violent extremist recruitment and radicalization is a top national security priority. Osaki, T. (2015) ‘Deadly sarin attack on Tokyo subway system recalled 20 years on’, The Japan Times Online, March. Matchett, W. (2016) Secret Victory: the intelligence war that beat the IRA. Ricin, the toxin found naturally in castor beans, is poisonous if inhaled, injected, or ingested. Radiation detection equipment and devices like Geiger counters and pocket dosimeters are needed. : The SAS. more information Accept. From use of Special Forces to targeted killings and covert intelligence – what works, when and why? Complicity raises fundamental ethical and moral questions (Gaskarth, 2011). The use of Special Forces in hostage rescue in foreign states is also relevant in this category. Debates on the efficaciousness of techniques including the use of enhanced interrogation and torture, targeted killings, air and drone strikes, detention without trial, extraordinary rendition and Special Forces are central. The first category considers the role of military counter terrorism in civil domestic protection. Howard, T. (2016) Failed States and the Origins of Violence. Disclosure of Material Connection: Some of the links in our blog posts are Amazon “affiliate links.” This means if you click on the link and purchase the item, we will receive an affiliate commission. It can be in the form of a powder, a mist, or a pellet, or it can be dissolved in water or weak acid. If the attack includes radioactive material, moving quickly away from the blast area will reduce the time and intensity of your exposure. An explosive mixture of ammonium nitrate and an organic fuel. The information on this website is valid as of 29 August 2015. The use (or threat of use) of Special Forces in domestic counter terrorism operations is germane. The “state of emergency” was initially declared by the British Mandate government and it enacted legislations that permit preventive and punitive measures. 9-15) and electronic warfare are extensive. Even a tiny drop of nerve agent on the skin can cause sweating and muscle twitching. Effective military responses are imperative in border, costal and airspace protection. Scenario planning and game theory techniques may prove helpful in this regard. U.S. Department of Homeland Security Training. The OSCE promotes a co-operative and co-ordinated approach to countering terrorism at all levels, including co-ordination among national authorities, co-operation among states, co-operation with relevant international and regional organizations and, where appropriate, establishment of public-private partnerships between state authorities, the private sector (business community, industry), civil society … Assassination is a tactic used by nearly all terrorist groups, although far less frequently than other types of armed attacks. In assessing the operational effectiveness of lethal outcomes, the risk of disenfranchisement and radicalisation must be considered. The killings can be motivated by ideology, religion, politics, or nationalism. The interdiction of drugs, arms and people trafficking denies terrorists weaponry, funding and operatives. Merrion Press. SIGINT collection against foreign targets raises fewer privacy concerns than those in domestic civil surveillance (such as under category 1 above). Beyond Special Forces, military deployments to Heathrow Airport near London in response to an al-Qaeda (Bamber, Craig and Elliott, 2003) and Palestinian terrorist plot (Merry, 1974), (Pandey, 2008, pp. It is extremely unlikely that anyone who survives the explosion will become sick from radiation. Because 12 lunar months multiplied by 29.53 days equals 354.36 days, the Islamic calendar will always be approximately 11 days shorter than the Western (Gregorian) calendar. 147-162). This raises further issues about the conceptualisation of the Northern Ireland conflict, questions of ‘moral equivalence’ and the acceptability of counter terrorism measures within such contexts. On the balance sheet of measures in this context, decapitation attacks against al-Qaeda in Afghanistan (Wilner, 2010, pp. Broadway Paperbacks. The strategies and tactics used by governments to counter terrorism and insurgency vary widely, from highly visible declarations of states of siege, for example, to less visible measures such as covert operations. These cases highlight the need to consider the totality of outcome when assessing the effectiveness of the policy instrument. This may extend to large scale evacuation, quarantine and clean-up operations. Ingestion of contaminated food or water may cause abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and fecal incontinence. Ugandan agents acting on Amin’s orders are said to have assassinated Kenyan Minister Bruce MacKenzie in revenge (Muendo, 2016). In this system, the letters “u” and “a” are preferred over “o” and “e.” For example, the name of the al-Qa‘ida operative who was detained on 1 March 2003 is Khalid Shaykh Muhammad, not Khalid Sheikh Mohammed; he was an associate of Usama Bin Ladin, not Osama Bin Laden. 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